Memory impacts a person’s ability to perform almost any activity. Memory is how “knowledge is encoded, stored, and later retrieved” (Kandell, Schwartz, and Jessell,2000). Even mild memory deficits can impact a student’s success. There are different kinds of memory, including long-term memory, short-term memory, working memory, auditory memory, and visual memory.
Auditory memory is the ability to take in information that is presented orally (out loud), process it, retain it in one’s mind, and then recall it. Auditory memory requires working memory.
Working memory is “the management, manipulation, and transformation of information drawn from short-term memory and long-term memory” (Dehn, 2008). Working memory is responsible for processing higher-level linguistic information, and if the task is more complex, working memory spends more time processing (Daneman and Carpenter, 1980). Working memory capacity has significant relationships with reading decoding, language comprehension, spelling, following directions, vocabulary development, note taking, and GPA.
Sub-skills of auditory comprehension that we would be expecting our children to develop. Consider these for a moment:
A child who is poor at running will improve with practice; in the same way a child can develop their short-term auditory memory. Auditory memory deficits remembering multi-step directions, relating new information to prior knowledge, oral language comprehension, taking notes while listening, verbal fluid reasoning, written expression, and oral expression (Dehn, 2008). Individuals with deficits and weaknesses can benefit from direct teaching of strategies, which can improve working memory performance.
Effective strategy teaching can include:
Make learning visual
Contact me for more information or further guidance on individuals with poor memory skills and how intervention can help.